Inorganic trace constituent

  • GENERAL INFORMATION Cadmium is a natural element in the earthÕs crust. It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide). All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of other metals like zinc, lead, and copper. Cadmium does not corrode easily and has many uses, including batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Chlorite occurs when chlorine dioxide breaks down. HEALTH EFFECTS Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL. Some people may experience anemia.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Cyanide is a carbon-nitrogen chemical unit which combines with many organic and inorganic compounds. The most commonly used form, hydrogen cyanide, is mainly used to make compounds and other synthetic fibers and resins. The major source of cyanide in drinking water is discharge from industrial chemical factories. HEALTH EFFECTS Some people who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience nerve damage or problems with their thyroid.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Some fluoride compounds, such as sodium fluoride, calcium fluoride, and fluorosilicates, dissolve easily into ground water as it moves through gaps and pore spaces between rocks. Most water supplies contain some naturally occurring fluoride. Fluoride also enters drinking water in discharge from fertilizer or aluminum factories. Also, many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Nickel is a very abundant natural element and is often used in electroplating, stainless steel and alloy products. It generally gets into water from mining and refining operations.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Selenium is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. The greatest use of selenium compounds is in electronic and photocopier components, but they are also widely used in glass, pigments, rubber, metal alloys, textiles, petroleum, medical therapeutic agents, and photographic emulsions. The major sources of selenium in drinking water are discharge from petroleum and metal refineries; erosion of natural deposits; and discharge from mines.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Strontium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, soil, dust, coal, and oil. Naturally occurring strontium is not radioactive and is either referred to as stable strontium or strontium. Strontium in the environment exists in four stable isotopes, 84Sr (read as strontium eighty-four), 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr. Strontium can also exist as several radioactive isotopes; the most common is 90Sr. 90Sr is formed in nuclear reactors or during the explosion of nuclear weapons.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Virtually all food, water , air, and soil contain some aluminum. Since aluminum is so common and widespread in the environment, exposure cannot be avoided. Drinking water is not usually a significant source of aluminum exposure.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Thallium is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. The major sources of thallium in drinking water are leaching from ore-processing sites; and discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories. HEALTH EFFECTS Some people who drink water containing thallium well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience hair loss, changes in their blood, or problems with their kidneys, intestines, or liver problems.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Antimony is found naturally in the environment. The general public is exposed to low levels of it every day, primarily in food, drinking water, and air. It may be found in in the air near industries that process or release it, such as smelters, coal-fired plants, and refuse incinerators. High levels of antimony can be found in the air, water and soil in polluted areas.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Iron is common in the earth's crust. Iron is often found in water because of the large amount of iron present in the soil, sediment, and bedrock. It is also found in water because corrosive water will pick up iron from pipes. Iron is considered a secondary or aesthetic contaminant.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Barium is a lustrous, machinable metal which exists in nature only in ores containing mixtures of elements. The major sources of barium in drinking water are discharge of drilling wastes; discharge from metal refineries; and erosion of natural deposits. HEALTH EFFECTS Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Mercury is a liquid metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. The major sources of mercury in drinking water are erosion of natural deposits; discharge from refineries and factories; runoff from landfills; and runoff from croplands. HEALTH EFFECTS Some people who drink water containing mercury well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience kidney damage.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Bromate is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water. Bromate formation in disinfected drinking water is influenced by factors such as bromide ion concentration, pH of the source water, the amount of ozone and the reaction time used to disinfect the water. HEALTH EFFECTS Some people who drink water of containing bromate in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Manganese is naturally occurring in many surface and ground water sources and in soils that may erode into these waters. However, human activities are also responsible for much of the manganese contamination in water in some areas.
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  • GENERAL INFORMATION Zinc is an essential trace metal with very low toxicity in humans. Zinc can occur naturally in drinking water. Zinc contamination can result from corrosion of galvanized pipes by soft, acidic water. Zinc is used in fertilizers and may be found in landfill leachate or in industrial wastes.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Beryllium naturally enters surface water and ground water through the weathering of rocks and soils or from industrial wastewater discharges. The major source of environmental releases from human activities are coal and fuel oil combustion. Beryllium dust enters the air from burning coal and oil. This beryllium dust will eventually settle over the land and water. Most beryllium in soil does not dissolve in water and remains bound to soil.
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  • GENERAL INFORMATION The gaseous or liquid form of chlorine (CL2) is a water additive used by municipal water systems to control microbes. It is relatively inexpensive and has the lowest production and operating costs and longest history for large continuous disinfection operations. Chlorine is a powerful oxidant.
  • GENERAL INFORMATION Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and minerals and may enter the air, water, and land from wind-blown dust and may get into water from runoff and leaching. Arsenic cannot be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form. Many common arsenic compounds can dissolve in water. Most of the arsenic in water will ultimately end up in soil or sediment.
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  • GENERAL INFORMATION Copper is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. Copper is widely used in household plumbing materials. The major sources of copper in drinking water are corrosion of household plumbing systems; and erosion of natural deposits.